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Foreign Policy

Can African Leaders Dealer Congo-Rwanda Peace?


Welcome to Overseas Coverage’s Africa Transient.

The highlights this week: Equatorial Guinea’s newest sham election, rising Russia-Algeria ties, and Africa’s homegrown soccer coaches.

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Can a Stop-Hearth Maintain in Congo? 

Kenya’s former President Uhuru Kenyatta has referred to as on Rwandan President Paul Kagame to help in mediation efforts with M23 rebels within the jap Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Kagame agreed to assist encourage a cease-fire, stated Kenyatta, who’s mediating the battle on behalf of the seven-nation East African Group (EAC), a regional political bloc. The 2 males spoke through phone late Friday.

Kagame vowed to help EAC facilitators “to induce” the M23 to withdraw from captured territories, marking a major shift in rhetoric, regardless of official denials from Kigali that it has any involvement with the insurgent group.

“It’s encouraging to see Paul Kagame acknowledge that he can affect the M23,” said Congolese President Félix Tshisekedi’s deputy spokesperson. Tshisekedi has accused Rwanda of reorganizing and arming the most recent insurgencies, which Kagame denies. Each side—and neighboring Uganda—have lengthy engaged in proxy wars within the area.

Peace talks between the Congolese authorities and armed rebels scheduled for Monday in Kenya’s capital, Nairobi, had been postponed on the final minute whereas one other spherical of talks between Congolese and Rwandan officers is slated for later this week in Angola’s capital, Luanda.

There are not any rapid indicators that skirmishes will cease after M23 made appreciable beneficial properties capturing territory in Congo’s North Kivu province. The M23 rebels had managed to take management of the city of Kibumba, close to Goma. Kenya deployed a contingency of about 900 troops to the town earlier this month as a part of an EAC regional pressure, however in response to native witnesses cited in information reviews these troops should not but engaged in lively preventing.

Greater than 120 armed teams function in jap Congo, and the protracted battle has displaced almost 6 million folks, with about 188,000 folks uprooted from their properties since Oct. 20. The battle is the world’s most neglected disaster, in response to the Norwegian Refugee Council.

What’s M23? The March 23 Motion, which takes its identify from a 2009 peace treaty, started in 2012 when the armed group Nationwide Congress for the Protection of the Individuals, led by Gen. Bosco Ntaganda, together with different armed teams, claimed the Congolese authorities had failed to completely uphold the treaty, which built-in the rebels into Congo’s federal military.

Ntaganda and his troopers between 2009 and 2012 loved high-ranking positions inside Congo’s military, generally known as FARDC. They controlled mineral-smuggling routes, particularly for gold and tantalum, which is utilized in good telephones. (A excessive share of minerals and cocoa from Congo are smuggled into Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi, in response to the United Nations.)

Nonetheless, with mounting worldwide stress to arrest Ntaganda, who was needed by the Worldwide Felony Court docket (ICC) for war crimes, the group defected and demanded that Congo implement the March 23 accord granting amnesty for crimes dedicated.

In 2012 and 2013, M23 seized swathes of territory, together with the town of Goma, earlier than U.N. forces and the Congolese military drove out the rebels. Ntaganda was prosecuted by the ICC and is serving a 30-year sentence, whereas different rebels fled into Rwanda and Uganda, changing into embroiled in native conflicts. M23 signed a peace accord in 2013, however preventing erupted in late 2021 when rebels claimed Kinshasa had didn’t combine them into the Congolese military.

Throughout almost 10 years of dormancy, rebels say they survived and hid weapons within the forest. However as Mélanie Gouby explained in a deep dive for Overseas Coverage, “It stays arduous to sq. how the group survived 5 years on an inhospitable mountain with the sudden, spectacular conquests.” A leaked report by U.N. consultants in August stated drone footage confirmed the presence of Rwandan military members in M23 camps. “State assist of armed teams is unacceptable, and we reiterate our concern about Rwanda’s assist to the M23,” U.S. State Division spokesperson Ned Worth stated final month.

One other diplomatic breakthrough? Specialists say many disarmament initiatives inside Congo didn’t create sustainable livelihoods for ex-militia. The previous few weeks have seen a slew of regional actions to handle Africa’s escalating conflicts. Few observers had a lot hope for the African Union-led talks geared toward addressing Ethiopia’s civil war, and it got here as a shock when a peace agreement was reached between Tigrayan forces and the federal authorities. A earlier “de-escalation” deal signed between the DRC and Rwanda in July proved inconsequential. Nonetheless, if the talks between Tshisekedi and Kagame handle to occur in Luanda, this might be one other shock deal facilitated by regional mediation.

On Monday, Uganda’s military stated it will ship 1,000 troops to Congo to battle alongside Kenyan and Burundian troops inside the EAC’s regional pressure. Guinea-Bissau’s president, Umaro Sissoco Embaló, who’s the chair of West African regional bloc ECOWAS, has additionally traveled to Kinshasa and Kigali. Though the endgame is unclear, Kagame’s pledge is nonetheless an vital breakthrough—and it may assist facilitate a peaceable decision.


Wednesday, Nov. 23, to Thursday, Nov. 24: King Charles III continues to host South African President Cyril Ramaphosa on a U.Ok. state go to that started on Tuesday.

Wednesday, Nov. 23, to Friday, Nov. 25: The African Union continues to host a summit that started Nov. 20 on industrialization and financial diversification in Niamey, Niger.

Thursday, Nov. 24: South Africa pronounces an rate of interest choice.

Monday, Nov. 28, to Friday, Dec. 2: U.N. Secretary-Common António Guterres and Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed communicate on the Web Governance Discussion board held in Addis Ababa.





Voters queue on the Nuestra Senior school polling station in Bisila, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea, in the course of the nation’s presidential, legislative, and municipal elections on Nov. 20.

Voters queue on the Nuestra Senior school polling station in Bisila, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea, in the course of the nation’s presidential, legislative, and municipal elections on Nov. 20.SAMUEL OBIANG/AFP through Getty Photos

Equatorial Guinea elections. It got here as no shock to political observers that oil-rich Equatorial Guinea’s longtime chief, President Teodoro Obiang, gained 99 percent of the vote within the nation’s presidential elections held on Sunday. Having seized energy in a coup in 1979, Obiang has by no means acquired lower than 90 p.c of the vote in what critics and pro-democracy activists contemplate to be “sham” elections. The 80-year-old is the world’s longest-serving chief and can proceed to steer the nation after 43 years of authoritarian rule.

Final month in Overseas Coverage, Jeffrey Smith and Tutu Alicante lambasted the U.S. authorities’s continued ties with Obiang regardless of greater than 4 many years of great human rights violations. “U.S. overseas direct funding to Equatorial Guinea has really elevated since 2016 and steadily in the course of the Biden administration, totaling almost $1 billion right this moment,” they wrote.

Russia-Algeria navy workouts. Almost 200 Algerian and Russian troopers are coaching till Nov. 28 at a testing floor near Morocco’s border amid tensions between Rabat and Algiers over the standing of the disputed territory of Western Sahara, over which Morocco claims sovereignty. The Desert Defend anti-terrorism drills started final Wednesday in Béchar province, the Russian state information company Sputnik reported. It’s the primary time that troopers from each international locations are coaching collectively on Algerian soil since their joint navy workouts started final 12 months.

There are concerns from Western officers about Algeria’s blossoming ties with the Kremlin. Russia is Algeria’s largest arms provider and the third-largest recipient of Russian arms on the earth, after India and China. It’s believed {that a} important chunk of Algeria’s allotted $23 billion protection price range for 2023 will go to Moscow. Round 17 members of the European Parliament wrote to European Fee chief Ursula von der Leyen expressing concern over Algeria’s financial and political ties to Russia. In September, U.S. Sen. Marco Rubio despatched a letter to U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken calling for sanctions in opposition to Algeria.

Sahel insurgency “standby” pressure. Heads of state from seven West African international locations met on Sunday in Ghana’s capital for the Accra Initiative, created in 2017 to handle violent extremism within the area. Members are “contemplating establishing a standby pressure” to sort out armed insurgencies, according to Ghana’s nationwide safety minister, Albert Kan Dapaah.

Nonetheless, cooperation between collaborating international locations—Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Mali, and Niger—has up to now didn’t result in any tangible outcomes. The British protection official James Heappey was among the European safety delegates that attended the assembly, coming at an ungainly time as Britain and Germany have introduced their troops will pull out of the U.N. peacekeeping mission in Mali. Mali’s ties with Russian non-public navy agency the Wagner Group have considerably eroded regional and international cooperation. Ivory Coast additionally announced a gradual withdrawal of its troops over the detention of its troopers by Mali’s junta.

“Loss and injury” deal. At COP27, richer nations agreed to the creation of a “loss and injury” fund to pay compensation for the impression of local weather change for growing international locations. America and European Union had for weeks rejected calls that richer nations who emitted probably the most ought to pay for the injury brought on by local weather change. The small print of when financing can be accessible and the way the fund will work will most likely not be hammered out till subsequent 12 months’s local weather talks in Dubai. Beneath the deal, a committee with representatives from 24 countries will work on firming up particulars about the place the cash ought to go, and which international locations ought to pay.

This can be a “very optimistic outcome for 1.3 billion Africans,” Collins Nzovu, Zambia’s setting minister, told the BBC. António Guterres, the U.N. secretary-general, said the fund was “an vital step in direction of justice” for poor international locations which have executed little to trigger the local weather disaster.


Africa’s homegrown coaches. Cameroon, Ghana, Morocco, Senegal, and Tunisia are representing the African continent on this 12 months’s World Cup, which started in Doha, Qatar, on Sunday.

For the primary time, all 5 collaborating African squads are being led by an African coach at a time when African soccer followers have more and more criticized groups’ overreliance on overseas coaches. It wasn’t till 2014 {that a} homegrown coach—Nigeria’s Stephen Keshi—led an African crew to the knockout stage of the World Cup.

There have been excessive hopes for Senegal’s crew underneath the helm of Senegalese coach Aliou Cissé. However with out star participant Sadio Mané, who’s out with a knee damage, the crew suffered a 2-0 defeat in Monday’s recreation in opposition to the Netherlands. Cissé has been answerable for the Senegalese squad since 2015, securing its first-ever Africa Cup of Nations win in Cameroon in February and changing into the continent’s highest-ranked crew in FIFA world rankings, presently in 18th place. “In fact, Sadio being lacking is an issue for us,” Cissé stated. Senegal’s subsequent recreation on Friday in opposition to host Qatar “is sort of a last now,” he added.


Economists forecast Nigeria’s Central Financial institution will devalue its forex, the naira, after elections in February. The naira is buying and selling at report lows after officers abruptly introduced that high-value notes could be redesigned and changed by Jan. 31. In government-controlled markets, the naira is buying and selling at about 444 naira to the greenback and 780 per greenback within the unauthorized market. Nigeria’s economic system is struggling underneath excessive inflation, a overseas forex scarcity, and sluggish oil outputs.


FP’s Most Learn This Week 

 A Theme Park Crisis Is Wrecking South Korea’s Bond Market by S. Nathan Park

 Ukraine’s Appetite for Weapons Is Straining Western Stockpiles by Jack Detsch and Amy Mackinnon

 Ukraine Has a Secret Resistance Operating Behind Russian Lines by Norma Costello and Vera Mironova 


Myanmar trafficking ring. Aggrey Mutambo within the East African uncovers the proliferation of Fb adverts promising jobs to East African migrants in Thailand, however many who make the journey find yourself trafficked and successfully “enslaved” in Myanmar. These rescued by Laotian safety forces working with Kenya’s overseas ministry stated they had been made to work lengthy hours with out pay and largely inside battle areas. Kenyan authorities say they’ll “increase supervision” on any East African touring to Thailand through its major worldwide airport.

Russia’s prisoner recruits. Mutale Pamela Kapekele within the Continent interviews the household of Lemekhani Nathan Nyirenda, a 23-year-old Zambian pupil who died on the entrance strains of Russia’s war in Ukraine. His household has unanswered questions and needs to determine the physique in Russia. It’s unknown how Nyirenda ended up in Ukraine, though Moscow has provided freedom to some prisoners in alternate for preventing. Leaked footage confirmed Yevgeny Prigozhin, the pinnacle of Wagner Group, recruiting prisoners. “When you serve six months, you’re free,” Prigozhin stated. “When you arrive in Ukraine and resolve it’s not for you, we’ll execute you,” he added.



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